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          [圖文]陳士軍:東海水晶文化的歷史淵源         ★★★ 【字體:
        陳士軍:東海水晶文化的歷史淵源
        作者:陳士軍    歷史文化來源:本站原創    點擊數:6166    更新時間:2013/11/4    

         

        東海水晶文化的歷史淵源

        陳士軍

         

        東海,得天地日月之精華,萃山川江河之靈魂。水晶的光芒從億萬年前的時空中穿越而來,璀璨綻放。從江蘇省第一個舊石器遺址大賢應遺址、新沂良渚文化遺址和海州漢墓群出土的水晶削刮器、水晶飾品和水晶雕刻件推算,東海水晶的發現和利用,早在一萬年前的舊石器時代就開始了,漢代時已形成初步加工規模。東海是我國水晶開采和水晶工藝品主要發源地和產區之一。

        東海水晶歷史文化源遠流長。據《江南通志》記載:“牛山(今東海縣城所在地),在海州(今連云港市)西北七十里,產水晶石。”20世紀70年代,東海縣山左口大賢莊遺址出土的“水晶礫石刮石器”,距今約一萬年以上。

        20世紀60年代初,在海州北門外新海發電廠二期工程擴建時,出土了清代水晶飾品“水晶頂冠”,“水晶花翎插管”等,說明清朝政府把東海水晶制成工藝品,作為官員頂戴上的標志,用于官階。現存連云港市博物館。清光緒、宣統年間,在東海縣房山因挖水晶,先后兩次發生大規模械斗事件,打死打傷多人。反映了在100多年前,東海人民為挖水晶而拼命相爭的事實。后海州官下令“不準再挖”。

        1978年,對海州小焦山進行挖掘,在戴勝墓出土了漢代兩只“水晶小飾品”,顯示出漢代水晶工藝品的風格。說明當時人們把它視為“觀賞石”加以收藏,現存連云港市博物館。同在漢代,東海境內的曲陽故縣,今為東海縣的曲陽鄉和近鄰的新沂花廳浪渚遺址出土了18棵“鼓形水晶珠”, 造型雅典,別具一格。反映了兩千多年前東海水晶文化的歷史價值。

        1982年,東海縣西朱范村農民王紹達在建房取沙時,出土了清末民國初期64枚水晶章料,其中有兩枚水晶鐫刻清晰的印章,一枚叫“瘦人”,另一枚叫“云臺山是舊家鄉”。“瘦人”印章高4.6厘米,長3.4厘米、寬2厘米,呈橢圓形,為篆書。現存東海縣博物館。反映了清末民國時期東海水晶工藝品的歷史文化水準。

        新中國成立后,民間適用性需求除加工制作水晶眼鏡外,水晶工藝品基本作為奢侈品在民間生產加工。國家對東海的水晶資源開采、利用非常重視,從1953年起就委托供銷社為國家代收購水晶,成立了“地方國營東海水晶105礦”專門從事水晶的開采、收購、管理等工作,東海水晶年開采量常年維持在400-600噸,占全國的三分之一。

        改革開放后,東海人民充分利用水晶及硅資源優勢,積極發展水晶文化產業及硅系列產品加工業,使其逐步成為東海經濟發展中的支柱產業。20世紀80年代,東海水晶文化進入了一個新的發展時期。在兩千多年歷史文化的積淀中,東海水晶文化表現藝術,在全面繼承玉雕的技法上,銳意創新。以江蘇省工藝美術大師沈明川為代表,他發明的“局部噴砂”新工藝,移植于水晶雕刻,被全國廣泛采用,使水晶藝術文化表現形式大放異彩,屬國內首創。東海水晶文化傳承是玉石文化的延生和再發展,是我國民族傳統文化的傳承與創新。水晶(摩氏7-7.5度)硬度高于玉(摩氏46度),同時天然水晶擁有質地、形態、色彩及其它玉石所不具備的豐富包裹體、水膽等特點。只有遵循傳統文化規則,結合現代創意理念,才能創意設計出有深刻文化內涵的形、色、意兼備的藝術品。特別是進入20世紀90年代,中國工藝美術大師、中國水晶雕刻第一人仵應汶,充分運用傳統“圓雕、浮雕、透雕、線刻、反雕、借景、借色、借形、陰雕、陽雕、虛實兼并”等藝術手法。并結合現代鑲嵌工藝點綴及亞光、亮光等技法,琢磨拋亮天然水晶的新思路、新工藝、新手法與一體。這一創舉,填補了中國“天然水晶藝術雕刻”作品史的一項空白,領先并主導著中國乃至世界“天然水晶藝術雕刻”作品工藝的新潮流。其作品《三教九流圖》,被作為國禮贈送俄羅斯總統普京。

        近幾年以來,東海建起了國內唯一以水晶為主題、涵蓋水晶形成展示、水晶文化發展、水晶藏品展陳等為一體的綜合性功能博物館——中國東海水晶博物館;建成了全國首家水晶文化創意產業園,成立了全國首家以研究水晶文化為主的社團組織——江蘇省水晶文化研究會;出版發行了全國唯一的水晶專業雜志《東海水晶》;啟動建設了占地面積452畝的全國最大水晶交易市場——中國水晶城;擁有太平洋、晶海洋、中材高新、沃鑫、福東、康達等硅工業規模企業500多家,讓東海躍居“世界東方的石英中心”和“中國高新材料硅產業基地”。東海也借助大自然的精妙杰作,實現了以“水晶為媒介,讓世界了解東海;以水晶為橋梁,讓東海走向世界”的蝶變。

        水晶文化的不斷升溫,奠定了東海成為“文化晶都”的地位,2009年在江蘇省所有建制縣中,東海縣惟一捧得“全國文化先進縣”的桂冠。“務實、包容、創新、開拓”新時期的“東海精神”更加詮釋了水晶深層次的文化內涵。從中國(世界)首枚“東海水晶”郵票全國首創發行,到東海成功舉辦了十二屆水晶節,舉辦了全國水晶楹聯大賽、六屆“晶城杯”江蘇省水晶工藝品大賽,在北京人民大會堂舉辦了中國天然水晶工藝品“百花獎”評選活動。以水晶為題材的影視、戲劇、詩歌、散文、美術、書法創作如火如荼,電影《水晶心》、電視連續劇《血染紫晶》、《水晶緣》等影響廣泛。四集電視戲曲片《春打六九頭》在央視戲曲頻道播出。現代呂劇《紅絲帶獲江蘇省“五個一工程獎”。圍繞水晶創作的主題歌曲《水晶之戀》榮獲全國城市形象歌曲大賽金獎、《福如東海》在全國唱響。從央視的《水晶傳奇》到2013年《央視尋寶——走進東海》,東海水晶地藏王菩薩造像被評為“最具歷史文化價值”的藏品。從“江蘇符號”全球征集,到“東海水晶”成功入選,這一路無不凝煉和打造東海水晶獨具的文化個性、文化品位和文化內涵。

        陳士軍,19726月出生。本科學歷。江蘇省水晶文化研究會副秘書長 、東海縣文化廣電體育局工會副主席、東海縣新聞出版局辦公室主任、政工師。先后在《中國文化報》、中國文化市場網、《科學教育研究》、全省新聞出版依法行政理論與實踐研討會、江蘇文化周訊等報刊發表文學作品和理論文章30余篇。

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